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The National Eye Institute (NEI), part of the NIH, defines a cataract as “a clouding of the lens” that affects vision.  More than half of Americans have had a cataract by the age of 80. Cataracts are “a leading cause of visual impairment in the United States.”  Because smoking is an important and avoidable cause [...]

Age Related Macular Degeneration, or AMD, is the leading cause of blindness for those 65 years of age and older. AMD is caused by a deterioration of the retina.  The macula is the center of the retina, and provides the central vision necessary to read, drive, and recognize object. “In the absence of effective treatment [...]