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Microbes cause disease, and include bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites.  In the last century great strides in medicine were made in combating diseases caused by microbes.  Antimicrobials have increased human life expectancy and decreased the ability of microbes to cause disease.  Disease conditions that used to be fatal are now easily treated with antimicrobials. Unfortunately [...]

Within the last few years, a paradigm shift has occurred in the operating room:  surgeons no longer need to directly touch or even see what they are operating.  Endoscopic video imaging and advanced in instrumentation have converted open surgeries to endoscopic ones.  This has resulted in higher survival rates, fewer complications, and a quicker return [...]

Human DNA codes for the expression of everything from hair color to metabolism to genetic disorders.  DNA with mutations causes some of these disorders.  Gene therapy replaces or repairs these mutations, by providing “correct” DNA that is attached to a vector.  A vector is a vehicle for the DNA that is put together by researchers.  [...]