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The National Institute of Health (NIH) defines a clinical trial as a biomedical or behavioral research study of human subjects designed to answer specific questions about biomedical or behavioral interventions (drugs, treatments, and devices.) The FDA and the Office of Human Research Protection (OHRP) regulate clinical trials.  An Institutional Review Board (IRB) reviews study-related documents, [...]

Microbes cause disease, and include bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites.  In the last century great strides in medicine were made in combating diseases caused by microbes.  Antimicrobials have increased human life expectancy and decreased the ability of microbes to cause disease.  Disease conditions that used to be fatal are now easily treated with antimicrobials. Unfortunately [...]

Within the last few years, a paradigm shift has occurred in the operating room:  surgeons no longer need to directly touch or even see what they are operating.  Endoscopic video imaging and advanced in instrumentation have converted open surgeries to endoscopic ones.  This has resulted in higher survival rates, fewer complications, and a quicker return [...]